Dr. Frances Cress Welsing

March 18, 1935 – January 2, 2016

Frances Cress Welsing, was a psychiatrist and through her published works and research, she sought to help bring about a solution to the mental health problems of the black community by understanding racism.

Welsing published her first major work, “The Cress Theory of Color-Confrontation” as an essay in 1974 while assistant professor at Howard University. In the controversial essay, Welsing argued that the drive for white supremacy and superiority stems from a pervasive feeling of inadequacy and inferiority. Welsing claimed that “whiteness” was, in fact, a deficiency, evidenced by the inability of whites and other races to produce melanin which generates skin color. In short, white people in America could not cohabit peacefully with their black peers, according to Welsing, because of a deep-seated jealousy of people with melanin and their embrace of racial supremacy to accommodate these feelings. The essay was controversial and, according to Welsing, prevented her from not only gaining tenure at Howard but in fact losing her teaching post.

In 1991, Welsing published her most famous work, a collection of essays titled The Isis Papers: The Keys to the Colors, which discussed in depth the issues of white supremacy and racism in the United States. In The Isis Papers, Welsing delved deeper into her theories of melanin deficiency among whites as the driver of racism, white supremacy, and white segregation.  In the process of psychoanalyzing white racism, Welsing also discussed the importance of recognizing racial behaviors and symbols among blacks that were psychologically damaging and which needed to be countered and destroyed. She listed among those behaviors, homosexuality, which she claimed was a strategy for destroying black people.

Aside from her published racial and social theories, Welsing was an advocate for a strong African American family unit. She advised black men and women to delay having children until their thirties and instead take the time to thoroughly educate themselves so as to rear the next generation of high-functioning and disciplined black Americans who could challenge white supremacy.

The Isis Papers

Originally published: January 1, 2003
The Cress Theory of Color-Confrontation and Racism (White Supremacy)

Originally published: January 1, 1990


Dr. Frances Cress Welsing: The Cress Theory of Color Confrontation and Racism

Dr. Frances Cress Welsing – Freedom from Psychological Slavery

Dr. Frances Cress Welsing – National Black Holistic Retreat

Dr. Frances Cress Welsing and Dr. Jawara Hunter: Gentrification and African Lives (April 5, 2014)

Dr. Frances Cress Welsing – What If Children Understood Racism and White Supremacy Early?

Dr. Frances Cress Welsing – Racism & Mental Health




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